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Tables Source

This is the source markup for Tables. It is written in a Mallard extension format called Mallard Sites. Mallard Sites pages are just like regular Mallard pages, except that xref attributes may contain the / character.

table.page

<page xmlns="http://projectmallard.org/1.0/"
      type="topic" style="tutorial"
      id="table">

<info>
  <link type="guide" xref="index"/>

  <credit type="author copyright">
    <name>Shaun McCance</name>
    <email>shaunm@gnome.org</email>
    <years>2010</years>
  </credit>

  <include href="../../cc-by-sa-3-0.xml" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude" />

  <desc>Add tables with simple row and column shading to your Mallard documents.</desc>
</info>

<title>Tables</title>

<note style="pmo-source">
<title>Learn by Example</title>
<p>This page was written in a Mallard extension format called Mallard Sites.
<link xref="table-src">Read the source markup</link> for this page to
learn Mallard from real-world examples.</p>
</note>

<p>Tables are an efficient way to display certain types of information.  By
arranging data into rows and columns, they allow readers to easily scan and
compare data.  Mallard supports tables using a simple but powerful syntax
based on HTML tables.  In this tutorial, you will learn how to:</p>

<list>
  <item><p>create a <link xref="#basic">basic table</link>,</p></item>
  <item><p>control the <link xref="#frame">frame around the table and
  the rules between rows and columns</link>,</p></item>
  <item><p>automatically <link xref="#shade">shade alternating rows
  or columns</link>,</p></item>
  <item><p><link xref="#grouping">group rows or columns together</link>
  to have better control over rules and shading, and</p></item>
  <item><p>make a table cell <link xref="#spanning">span multiple rows
  or columns</link>.</p></item>
</list>

<comment>
  <cite date="2009-01-15">shaunm</cite>
  <p>Add info about thead, maybe new section after "Grouping"</p>
</comment>

<section id="basic">
<title>Basic Tables</title>

<p>The basic structure of tables in Mallard resembles that of tables in HTML.
The <code xref="/1.0/mal_table">table</code> element wraps an entire table.
Each row in a table is wrapped in a <code xref="/1.0/mal_table_tr">tr</code>
element, and each column in a row is wrapped in a
<code xref="/1.0/mal_table_td">td</code> element.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<note style="important">
<p>Notice that each <code>td</code> element contains a paragraph, marked up
with the <code xref="/1.0/mal_block_p">p</code> tag.  A table cell
can contain multiple paragraphs or other block elements.  In Mallard, every
element contains either block or inline content, so even when you only use
a single line of text in a table cell, you must use a paragraph.</p>
</note>
</section>

<section id="frame">
<title>Frames and Rules</title>

<p>In the previous example, there were no rules between rows or columns,
and no frame around the entire table.  Mallard provides a simple method
to specify how to draw the table frame and the rules between rows and
columns.</p>

<p>You can use the <code>frame</code> attribute on the <code>table</code>
element to specify how to draw a frame around the table.  Set the
<code>frame</code> attribute to a space-separated list of positions
where a frame should be drawn: <code>top</code>, <code>bottom</code>,
<code>left</code>, or <code>right</code>.  The following example draws
frames on the top and bottom.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table frame="top bottom">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table frame="top bottom">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>Instead of specifying each position, you can set the <code>frame</code>
attribute to <code>all</code> to draw frames on all sides.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table frame="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table frame="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>Unlike HTML, the frame around the entire table is handled separately from
rules between rows and columns.  You control where rules are drawn using the
<code>rules</code> attribute on the <code>table</code> element.  Like the
<code>frame</code> attribute, the <code>rules</code> attribute takes a
space-separated list of where rules should be drawn.  The folloing example
draws rules between each row and each column.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table rules="rows cols">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table rules="rows cols">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>You could have also simply set <code>rules</code> to <code>all</code>
for the same effect.  You can also control which rows and columns have
rules using row and column groups.  See <link xref="#grouping"/> below
for details.</p>

</section>

<section id="shade">
<title>Shading</title>

<p>A common feature in tables of information is alternate-row shading.
With shading, every other row is drawn with a darker background color.
This helps readers keep track of which information is in which row.
In Mallard, you can easily shade rows or columns in Mallard without
manually marking alternate rows or columns.</p>

<p>Use the <code>shade</code> attribute to specify whether to shade rows or
columns.  Like the <code>rules</code> attribute, the <code>shade</code>
attribute takes a space-separated list.  The following example shades only
alternate rows.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table shade="rows">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table shade="rows">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>To shade both rows and columns, use both <code>rows</code> and
<code>cols</code> in the <code>shade</code> attribute, or simply set
the <code>shade</code> attribute to <code>all</code>.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table shade="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table shade="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>Notice that when both rows and columns are shaded, a darker background
color is used where shaded rows intersect shaded columns.  You can also
control which rows and columns are shaded using row and column groups.
See <link xref="#grouping"/> below for details.</p>

</section>

<section id="grouping">
<title>Grouping</title>

<p>In the previous examples, you were only able to enable rules and shading
for all rows or all columns.  You can also group rows and columns to control
rules and shading.  To group rows together, wrap the <code>tr</code> elements
for each row group in a <code xref="/1.0/mal_table_tr">tbody</code>
element.  You can then use <code>rowgroups</code> instead of <code>rows</code>
for either of the <code>rules</code> or <code>shade</code> attributes.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table rules="rowgroups" shade="rowgroups">
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
      <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
      <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
      <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
      <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
</table>]]></code>
<table rules="rowgroups" shade="rowgroups">
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
      <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
      <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
      <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
      <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
</example>

<p>To control column grouping, you have to specify the columns and column
groups at the beginning of the <code>table</code> element using the
<code xref="/1.0/mal_table_col">col</code> and
<code xref="/1.0/mal_table_col">colgroup</code> elements.
Each <code>col</code> element represents one column, and you should have
one for each column that appears in your rows.  Wrap the <code>col</code>
elements in <code>colgroup</code> elements to indicate grouping.</p>

<p>Once you have specified the columns and column groups, you can use
<code>colgroups</code> instead of <code>cols</code> for either of the
<code>rules</code> or <code>shade</code> attributes.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table rules="colgroups" shade="colgroups">
  <colgroup><col/></colgroup>
  <colgroup><col/></colgroup>
  <colgroup><col/><col/></colgroup>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table rules="colgroups" shade="colgroups">
  <colgroup><col/></colgroup>
  <colgroup><col/></colgroup>
  <colgroup><col/><col/></colgroup>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Mallard</p></td> <td><p>Anas platyrhynchos</p></td>
    <td><p>56-65cm</p></td> <td><p>900-1200g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Eurasian Wigeon</p></td> <td><p>Anas penelope</p></td>
    <td><p>45-50cm</p></td>         <td><p>680g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Common Teal</p></td> <td><p>Anas crecca</p></td>
    <td><p>34-43cm</p></td>     <td><p>360g</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Northern Pintail</p></td> <td><p>Anas acuta</p></td>
    <td><p>59-76cm</p></td>          <td><p>450-1360g</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>In these examples, you used grouping for both rules and shading, but they
aren't required to match.  You could have rules between each row, but only shade
every other row group, for example.  And because both the <code>rules</code> and
<code>shade</code> attributes take a space-separated list, you can mix row and
column grouping, just as you did for rules and shading for single rows and
columns.  Try modifying the table yourself to achieve different effects.</p>
</section>

<section id="spanning">
<title>Spanning</title>

<p>Sometimes you need to have a table cell that spans across multiple rows or
columns.  Mallard supports row and column spanning using the <code>rowspan</code>
and <code>colspan</code> attributes on <code>td</code> elements, similarly to
HTML.  Both attributes take a number indicating how many rows or columns the
<code>td</code> element should occupy.</p>

<p>When you set the <code>colspan</code> attribute, that <code>td</code> element
effectively uses up that many columns, so the enclosing <code>tr</code> element
should have fewer <code>td</code> elements.  For example, if you normally have
five columns, but one of your <code>td</code> elements has <code>colspan="3"</code>,
then you should only have three <code>td</code> elements.</p>

<p>Similarly, when you set the <code>rowspan</code> attribute, that <code>td</code>
element uses up space in that many rows.  Any <code>tr</code> elements that come
after the current row will have fewer <code>td</code> elements.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table frame="all" rules="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td rowspan="2"><p>Rows</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td colspan="2"><p>Columns</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table frame="all" rules="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td rowspan="2"><p>Rows</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td colspan="2"><p>Columns</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>A table cell can span multiple rows and multiple columns at the same time.
When you do this, be careful to use the right number of <code>td</code>
elements in the following rows.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table frame="all" rules="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td rowspan="2" colspan="2"><p>Both</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table frame="all" rules="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td rowspan="2" colspan="2"><p>Both</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>

<p>When you use shading with spanning, table cells are shaded based on the
top-left row and column.  That is, they are shaded based on where the
<code>td</code> element is, as if it did not span any rows or columns.</p>

<example>
<code mime="application/xml"><![CDATA[
<table frame="all" rules="all" shade="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td rowspan="3"><p>Rows</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td colspan="2"><p>Columns</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td rowspan="3"><p>Rows</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>]]></code>
<table frame="all" rules="all" shade="all">
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Three</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td rowspan="3"><p>Rows</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td colspan="2"><p>Columns</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td rowspan="3"><p>Rows</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><p>One</p></td>
    <td><p>Two</p></td>
    <td><p>Four</p></td>
    <td><p>Five</p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
</example>
</section>

<section id="learnmore">
<title>Learn More</title>

<p>In this tutorial, you learned the basics of the major features of Mallard
tables.  These features are designed to help you display tabular information
in ways that will best help your readers.  This tutorial only showed you a
few ways you can put these features together.  Try changing the examples to
acheive different effects.</p>

<p>For more information see <link xref="/1.0/mal_table"/> in the language
specification.  The specification pages are full of examples to help you
learn more.</p>

</section>

</page>
© 2010 Shaun McCance
cc-by-sa 3.0 (us)

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License.

As a special exception, the copyright holders give you permission to copy, modify, and distribute the example code contained in this document under the terms of your choosing, without restriction.

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